China’s palm oil spot market is full of trade enterprises and well-developed circulation links. Guangzhou, Zhangjiagang and Tianjin are the main imports of palm oil, and thus radiate to the surrounding areas. Palm oil has two uses in food and chemical industry, and there are many consumer businesses.
(一) the processing and circulation of palm oil in China
China mainly relies on imports of palm oil. North China (Tianjin and Shandong), East China (Zhangjiagang, Taixing, Ningbo and other areas around Shanghai), South China (Huangpu, Shenzhen and Xiamen, etc.) are the main import, processing and sales areas of palm oil in China. The import volume of palm oil accounts for the total import volume of China. Of the 92%, North China accounted for 24%, East China accounted for 34%, and Southern China accounted for 34%. From the point of view of the import port, Tianjin Port, Zhangjiagang and Huangpu Port account for 67% of the total import volume. In addition, Qingdao, Shenzhen and Xiamen also import more palm oil, accounting for about 5% of the total import volume.
At present, there are thousands of palm oil processing (refining, extracting, blending) enterprises in China. The main palm oil processing enterprises such as Yihai Grain and Oil Industry Co., Ltd. and Tianjin Longwei Grain and Oil Industry Co., Ltd. are basically distributed around the main import ports. According to the import and export data of 2006, the import of palm oil was carried out in that year. There are more than 50 large-scale oil and fat enterprises with imports accounting for about 60% of the total imports. Oil enterprises that carry out direct imports usually refine and separate most of palm oil before entering the trade field, and a small part of them enter the circulation field through intermediaries.
At present, there are nearly 10,000 palm oil trading enterprises in China, among which large-scale trading enterprises import directly from abroad and distribute through a large number of small and medium-sized distributors after entering the country. In 2006, there were more than 80 trade enterprises to import palm oil, accounting for 34% of the total imports. These trading enterprises generally do not have a special storage warehouse, usually lease oil enterprises or storage enterprises storage tanks.
Tianjin, Shanghai and the surrounding areas of Guangzhou are not only the main import and trade centers of palm oil in China, but also large-scale palm oil processing enterprises are mainly concentrated in these areas, with sufficient processing and storage capacity of palm oil.
1. the surrounding areas of Tianjin. The import, processing and inventory capacity of palm oil in the surrounding areas of Tianjin are sufficient. The major oil and fat enterprises have a total processing capacity of about 4500 tons per day and a tank capacity of nearly 400,000 tons. The palm oil sales areas in this area are Beijing, Tianjin, most of Hebei, northern Henan, Eastern Shandong, most of Shanxi, Inner Mongolia, northeastern part, Gansu, Shaanxi. Palm oil processing enterprises to obtain lower logistics costs, basically built in the vicinity of the port, large ships docked conveniently, mainly through railway and highway outward transport, convenient conditions, is an important distribution center of palm oil in China.
2. the surrounding areas of Shanghai. The major oil and grease enterprises around Shanghai have a refining capacity of about 2500 tons per day and a tank capacity of nearly 600,000 tons, of which the tank capacity of processing enterprises is about 200,000 tons and the tank capacity of warehouses is about 400,000 tons. Palm oil is sold in Shanghai, Zhejiang, Anhui, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Chongqing, Sichuan and parts of Henan and Shaanxi. Palm oil processing enterprises in this area have chosen port-vicinity industrial development model, mainly distributed in Zhangjiagang, Taixing, Ningbo and other regions, most of the ports can berth 30 to 50,000 tons of cargo ships. Sales to Henan and Shaanxi mainly through the railway, sales to other provinces mainly rely on the Yangtze River waterway, through the way of water transportation, with good palm oil distribution function.
3. the surrounding areas of Guangzhou. The production capacity and tank capacity of palm oil in the surrounding area of Guangzhou are also sufficient. The refining capacity of the major oil and fat enterprises is about 3000 tons per day, and the tank capacity of more than 400,000 tons. These tanks are basically distributed in processing enterprises. The sales areas of palm oil in this area are Guangdong, Fujian, Jiangxi, Hunan, Guangxi, Sichuan, Yunnan and Guizhou. Palm oil processing enterprises mainly concentrated in Guangzhou-Dongguan-Shenzhen along the Pearl River estuary area, most ports can berth 30 to 50,000 tons of cargo ships. Among them, Guangdong, Fujian and other provinces mainly sell palm oil by water, and have certain radiation to the south of Hunan and the east of Guangxi. The sales to the rest of the region are mainly by railway and highway transportation. Palm oil has a strong distribution function
(二) consumption of palm oil in China
Palm oil can be used not only for food consumption, but also for industrial consumption. Statistics from traders show that the consumption of palm oil in China is mainly food, of which 24 degree refined palm oil is the main variety, occupying more than 60% of the market share.
1. consumption structure of vegetable oils in China
If the market share of each oil product is measured by its consumption, the consumption structure of vegetable oil before and after 2001 is markedly changed. Before 2001, the share of vegetable oils in total consumption did not change significantly. The market share of vegetable oils in 2001 was rapeseed oil, soybean oil, peanut oil, palm oil, cottonseed oil and small variety oil in turn. After 2001, the consumption share of soybean oil and palm oil increased significantly, while the consumption share of rapeseed oil, peanut oil and cottonseed oil decreased, and the consumption share of small variety oil changed little. By 2004, the consumption share of all kinds of oils had changed from large to small in order: soybean oil, rapeseed oil, palm oil, peanut oil, small variety oil, cottonseed oil, and the consumption share of small variety oil exceeded that of cottonseed oil. In the next few years, the consumption of palm oil in China will continue to grow, and its share of consumption is expected to soon exceed that of rapeseed oil.
2. consumption of palm oil
In 1996-2001, the consumption of palm oil in China showed a steady growth trend. The growth rate of palm oil in 2001-2003 was obviously accelerated. After 2003, the growth rate was weakened, but it was still a record year by year. The consumption of palm oil reached 2.7 million tons in 2004, and the consumption of palm oil in China was estimated to be 2.9 million tons in 2005, an increase of 200,000 tons compared with 2004.
3. industrial consumption of palm oil
Since China does not implement quota management on palm oil above 44 degrees, this has greatly promoted the import of palm oil above 44 degrees in recent years, and the industrial consumption of palm oil has also increased rapidly. Palm oil industrial consumption reached 350,000 tons in 2002 and 1.2 million tons in 2004, with an average annual growth of 420,000 tons in 2002-2004. The consumption of palm oil in China is estimated to be 1 million 400 thousand tons in 2005, an increase of 200 thousand tons compared with 2004.
4. palm oil consumption companies
From the point of view of consumption enterprises, there are thousands of large-scale palm oil consumption enterprises in China. If the number of small enterprises is more than 5000, they mainly distribute in the fields of catering, food processing and chemical industry. The representative enterprises are instant noodle production enterprises such as Unified Food Group and Dingxin Group, and chemical enterprises such as Guangzhou Bao. Jie, Yiyang, and so on. Most consumer businesses usually do not import directly, mainly by intermediaries. In 2006, there were about 30 consumer enterprises directly imported, accounting for 2% of the total imports. According to incomplete statistics, on the whole, the proportion of imported palm oil used for commercial circulation is about 80%, and the proportion of goods directly entering terminal consumption, processing trade of incoming materials, bonded area warehousing and re-export is about 20%.
5. seasonality of palm oil consumption in China
Because the melting point of palm oil is relatively high, so its consumption has a certain seasonal, summer consumption is relatively large, winter is smaller. The seasonality of consumption is directly represented by the seasonality of import volume. From 2004 to 2006, the import volume in January and February was relatively small, about 160-290,000 tons, and the import volume in June-September was relatively large. The import volume in August 2004, June 2005 and August 2006 were the largest months of the year, reaching 410,000 tons, 500,000 tons and 670,000 tons respectively. Ten thousand tons.